There is an atmosphere of triumph and celebration in Nepal. For the first time in Nepal's history, representatives of the people have completed their task of writing a new constitution and have delivered it to the people. This historic moment is the official conclusion of decade-long Peace Agreement which ended the armed conflict, and the fulfillment of the Second Jana Andolan (People’s Movement). It is an accomplishment which holds promises of peace and prosperity in Nepal.
An overwhelming 90 percent of the Constituent Assembly endorsed the document. The constitution drafting process was democratic, inclusive and participatory. In the past, constitutions were either written by the monarch or by a committee selected by the king or queen.
President Ram Baran Yadav promulgated the new constitution which came into effect immediately and annulled the Interim Constitution of 2007, on Sunday, September 20, 2015. As the CA has completed the task of writing the new constitution, it has been dissolved and transformed into the Legislature-Parliament, as per the Constitution.
In a brief speech following the declaration the President stated that he hoped the new constitution would ensure a sustainable peace and political stability taking the nation on the path of social and economic prosperity and urged the political leadership to demonstrate its competence with wisdom in implementation.
He acknowledged the constitution has not addressed all the demands of ethnic groups however, it has laid the groundwork for inclusiveness and is a living document with space for amendments.
Key features of the Constitution of Nepal 2015 :
- Democratic Republican state where the source of powers is vested only in the people.
- Seven Province Federal model
- Three-tier government: federal, provincial and local
- Inclusion and policy of proportional representation
- Competative multi-party democratic system
- Fundamental rights including economic, social and cultural rights
- Full press freedom
- Independent, fair and competent judiciary
- Constitutional bench in Supreme Court
- Executive rights on Council of Ministers
- President as ceremonial head-of-state
- Bi-cameral federal parliament—275 member House of Representatives and 59 member National Assembly
- Citizenship by decent to a child of a Nepali father or mother